Kerberoasting is an attack method that allows an attacker to crack the passwords of service accounts in Active Directory offline and without fear of detection.
Pass the Hash is a technique that enables an attacker (typically using Mimikatz) to leverage the LanMan or NTLM hashes of a user’s password – instead of the user’s plaintext password – to authenticate to a directory or resource.
By obtaining the password hash for the most powerful service account in Active Directory – the KRBTGT account – an attacker is able to compromise every account within Active Directory, giving them unlimited and virtually undetectable access to any system connected to AD.
DCSync is a command within Mimikatz that an attacker can leverage to simulate the behavior of Domain Controller (DC). More simply, it allows the attacker to pretend to be a Domain Controller and ask other DC’s for user password data.
Within Active Directory, Group Policies (or Group Policy Objects) permit administrators to centrally manage configurations applied to domain-joined servers and workstations. Group Policies define policies (enforced settings) and preferences, which propagate default configurations that a user can modify. While Group Policies are an essential part of managing a healthy Active Directory-managed environment, administrators can occasionally run afoul of security best-practices. One such example was the ability to embed passwords in Group Policy Preferences that created local users or mapped network drives. While this
Pass-the-ticket is a credential theft technique that enables adversaries to use stolen Kerberos tickets to authenticate to resources (e.g. file shares and other computers) as a user without compromising that user’s password. This technique is often used by adversaries to move laterally through an organization’s network while hunting for opportunities to escalate privileges or fulfill their mission. Both ticket-granting service (TGS) tickets and ticket-granting tickets (TGT) can be stolen and reused by adversaries. Without administrative privileges, an adversary can obtain the TGT (using “fake delegation”) and all
Similar in concept to a golden ticket, a silver ticket attack involves compromising credentials and abusing the design of the Kerberos protocol. However, unlike a golden ticket — which grants an adversary unfettered access to the domain — a silver ticket only allows an attacker for forge ticket-granting service (TGS) tickets for specific services. TGS tickets are encrypted with the password hash for the service – therefore, if an adversary steals the hash for a service account they can mint TGS tickets for that service.